Fundamentals of Microbiology
The Science of Microbiology
Classification of Bacteria / Bacterial Taxonomy
(A) Aerobic (Obligate) - require oxygen to grow.E.g. - Nocardia, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, some Bacillus sp.
(B) Anaerobic - do not require oxygen for its growth.
(i) obligate anaerobes - do not use oxygen, harmed by it.E.g. Bacteroides, Clostridium species, Peptostreptococcus, Treponema, Fusiform, Porphyromonas, Veillonella, and Actinomyces.
(ii) facultative anaerobes - may use oxygen, but also have anaerobic methods for energy production.E.g. Staphylococci , Escherichia coli, Shewanella oneidensis, Listeria.
(a) microaerophilic - may use oxygen only at low concentrations, may / may not be harmed by higher concentration.E.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus intermedius, Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter.
(b) Nanaerobe - cannot grow in the presence of micromolar concentrations of oxygen, but can grow with and benefits from the presence of nanomolar concentrations of oxygen. E.g. Bacteriodes fragilis.
(b) aerotolerant - do not use oxygen, not harmed by it.
Identification of Bacteria
Preliminary Identification can be done by
(b) Staining Reactions - with simple stain, differential stains and special stains.
i) Gram Stain - Gram Positive Bacteria
, Gram Negative Bacteria
ii) Ziehl Neelsen stain - AFB NAFB
The Growth, Survival, & Death of Microorganisms
- Gene Transfer
(a) Transformation (b) Transduction (c) ConjugationMedical ImmunologyMedical BacteriologyMedical VirologyMedical MycologyMedical Parasitology
Principles of Diagnostic Medical Microbiology
Morphology and Physiology of Bacteria
Sterilisation and Disinfection
Bacteriology of Water Milk and Air
Laboratory Control of Antimicrobial Therapy